Starting from the drought that had never happened until the very cold weather, 2012 was a year of weather extremes.
In 2012, the United States experienced 11 weather-related events, which cost $ 1 billion (around Rp963 trillion) in any event, according to a provisional list released on Thursday, December 20, 2012, by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Economic losses for Hurricane Sandy and drought during the year are still being calculated, but NOAA estimates that losses from disasters in 2012 will exceed $ 60 billion.
Disaster struck bad weather outside the United States, too, as super typhoon also hit Asia and Europe freezing river. Globally, many countries are struggling against the heat wave and drought.
World Meteorological Organization estimates that 2012 will be the warmest year since 1850, even with the cooling effects of La Niña in the early months. And 2013 could be hot again, says WMO estimates.
Lowest and highest heat cold
Extreme winter included record snowfall in January in Alaska, while the high-temperature parts of the country. In February, Europe suffered from cold attacks that killed hundreds of people and freeze rivers and canals in the continent, which disrupt trade.
In early April a tornado season and raising fears of another destructive tornado occurrence, as happened in 2011. But this year, it did not happen. In the end, 2012 may be recorded as the year with the fewest tornadoes.
The combination of the ongoing drought and heat waves throughout the summer have lethal effects on humans, animals and plants. Nebraska experienced the driest year since records began more than a century ago, according to NOAA. Colorado experienced the worst fire season in more than a decade, with a fire in the west which destroyed 9.15 million hectares (37,000 square kilometers) as of November, according to the National Interagency Fire Center.
But 2012 finally seen prominently in history books mainly because of the storm that swept across the continent, the endless hitting coastlines in the Atlantic and the Pacific.
In Asia, the super storm hit Korea, China and Japan, one after another, causing record flooding. Even in December, Super Typhoon Bopha destroyed houses in the Philippines, killing more than 1,000 people.
Atlantic hurricane season produces 19 named storms, well above the annual average with 12 hurricanes, according to a statement from NOAA. Two tropical storms, Alberto and Beryl, appeared in May even before the hurricane season officially begins.
However, 2012 is the seventh year in a row that no major hurricanes (Category 3, 4 or 5) that hit the United States. But Hurricane Sandy shows no need to create great storms great effect.
Sandy, who is a post-tropical cyclones that entered the record books as the second hurricane to damage the most expensive in U.S. history. Tremendous storm surge, coupled with the tide, wreaking havoc along the coast of New Jersey and New York. Sandy lowest barometric pressure recorded in the history of the Northeast.
The number of storms forecast to hit more than the Atlantic basin, largely due to El Niño, is likely to suppress hurricane activity as a whole, never materialized as predicted by many climate models, NOAA said in a statement.
But the storm several years is largely gone unnoticed because they live in the Atlantic. Airflow tight constant in the eastern part of the country that helped steer more storms this season away from the United States, according to NOAA.
Estimates for 2013
Instead of El Niño, NOAA predicts that the index neutral phase of El Niño / La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will last through the spring. Sometimes also called “La Nada,” which is the middle position between El Niño and La Niña (patterns associated with cold water in the equatorial Pacific).
The lack of reliable weather patterns to hang predictions make forecasts more difficult to make. Prospects temperature until March shows above normal temperatures for the southern United States, except for the southern coast of California, Florida and parts of the southeast coast, according to the National Weather Service’s Climate Prediction Center.
The agency also predicts temperatures cooler than normal temperatures in the northern Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and southern Alaska.