Dampak Hipertensi

Istilah hipertensi digunakan untuk merujuk pada suatu kondisi tekanan darah tinggi. Tekanan darah dianggap tinggi atau melewati batas normal jika hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan angka diatas 140/90. Angka 140 menunjukkan tekanan sistolik dan angka 90 menunjukkan tekanan diastolik. Tekanan darah normal ada di kisaran 120/80 mmHg. Sedangkan 130/80 sudah dikategorikan normal tinggi.

Hipertensi secara perlahan dapat merusak sistem organ tubuh kita, yang lambat laun akan menunjukkan gejala kerusakan organ yang lebih progresif. Salah satu efek hipertensi jika tidak dirawat dengak baik adalah merusak pembuluh darah arteri. Arteri yang rusak menyebabkan terganggunya aliran darah, yang artinya kebutuhan oksigen dan nutrisi pada organ dan jaringan tubuh lain juga akan terganggu. 

Dengan rusaknya arteri, ada beberapa organ tubuh yang berisiko mengalami gangguan, di antaranya :

1. Jantung.
Rusaknya arteri membuat jantung bekerja ekstra dalam memompa, ditambah lagi dengan penyumbatan pembuluh darah, otot-otot jantung akan membesar dan tidak lagi efisien dalam memompa. Selain dapat memicu serangan jantung, dalam jangka panjang hal ini dapat menyebabkan kondisi gagal jantung.

2. Otak.
Hipertensi bisa menyebabkan kerusakan pembuluh darah di otak dan memicu pecahnya pembuluh darah otak hingga terjadi serangan stroke.

3. Ginjal.
Ginjal seharusnya berfungsi menyaring air yang berlebih dan limbah makanan yang berasal dari darah. Jika arteri rusak, peredaran darah ke ginjal ikut terganggu dan ginjal tidak bisa berfungsi dengan baik, sehingga limbah tersebut menumpuk dan muncullah kegagalan ginjal beserta banyak komplikasi lainnya.

4. Organ Vital.
Pada wanita, hipertensi bisa menyebabkan kehilangan gairah seksual, vagina terasa kering dan tidak bisa melakukan orgasme, sedangkan pada pria, bisa mengakibatkan terjadinya disfungsi ereksi.

5. Mata. 
Pada tingkatan yang cukup parah, hipertensi bisa berdampak pada terjadinya pendarahan pada organ mata bahkan kebutaan.

6. Tulang.
Tekanan darah tinggi memicu banyaknya kalsium yang terbuang lewat urin sehingga kepadatan tulang berkurang dan mudah keropos. Terutama jika terjadi pada wanita yang sudah memasuki masa menopause.

Memang pada tingkatan tertentu hipertensi wajib diatasi dengan obat-obatan (konsultasikan kondisi hipertensi Anda dengan dokter spesialis jantung atau dokter spesialis penyakit dalam). Namun dengan turut mengubah gaya hidup, pastinya akan membuat pengobatan Anda semakin maksimal, sekaligus melakukan pencegahan. Salah satunya dengan cara-cara berikut ini:

1. Turunkan berat badan
Biasanya tekanan darah meningkat seiring naiknya berat badan Anda. Jika lemak di daerah pinggang sudah menumpuk, risiko hipertensi akan lebih besar.

2. Olahraga
Melakukan kegiatan fisik dan olahraga yang bersifat aerobik (bukan yang bersifat anaerobik seperti body building) selama setengah jam hingga satu jam tiap hari, jauh lebih baik dibanding jika Anda menggabungkan seluruh porsi latihan di akhir pekan. Di samping itu, olahraga teratur juga dapat membantu menurunkan berat badan Anda.

3. Diet sehat dan tepat
Diet yang kaya akan biji-bijian, buah, sayuran, dan susu rendah lemak bisa membantu menurunkan tekanan darah. Kurangi makanan asin, makanan beku dan daging olahan. 

4. Hindari rokok
Termasuk hindari menjadi perokok pasif. 

5. Hindari kafein 
Kafein bisa menyebabkan kenaikan tekanan darah, walaupun hanya bersifat sementara. Terutama bagi mereka yang berusia lanjut atau pasien dengan obesitas, kafein berdampak lebih buruk bagi tekanan darah. Hindari konsumsi kafein lebih dari dua cangkir per hari.

6. Kelola stress dengan baik
Stress dan kecemasan bisa menaikkan tekanan darah. Pengelolaan stress sangat bermanfaat bagi kesehatan kita. Kegiatan relaksasi seperti pemijatan atau yoga bisa juga membantu.

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