Concorde

AérospatialeBAC Concorde was a supersonic aircraft is one of two types of passenger supersonic transport ever served commercially. Other supersonic aircraft is the Tupolev Tu-144 is the Russian who is also suspected of espionage is the result of the Concorde. Concorde has a cruising speed of 2.04 Mach (speed of sound) and fly up to 60,000 feet altitude (17 700 meters ) with the configuration of delta wings and the evolution of a machine equipped with a jet engine afterburner originally developed for aircraft bomber strategic (bomber) Avro Vulcan . commercial Flight operated by British Airways and Air France began on January 21 1976 and ends on October 24 2003 , with the last flight on 26 November the same year.

In the late 1950s, the United Kingdom, France, the United States and Soviet Union were considering developing supersonic transport. British Bristol Aeroplane Company and France Sud Aviation were both working on designs, called the Type 223 and Super-Caravelle, respectively Both largely funded by their respective governments. British design for thin-winged delta shape (which owed a lot to work by Dietrich Küchemann) transatlantic-ranged aircraft for about 100 people, while France is intending to build a medium-range aircraft. Designs were both ready to start prototype built in the early 1960s, but the cost was so great that the British government made a requirement that BAC look for international cooperation. The approach taken in some countries, but only France showed real interest. International development projects are negotiated as a treaty between two countries rather than a commercial agreement between the company and includes a clause, originally asked by the British, forcing the cancellation penalties. A draft treaty was signed on 28 November 1962. A draft agreement was signed on 28 November 1962 .. At this time, the two companies have merged into a new; Thus, the Concorde project between the British Aircraft Corporation and Aerospatiale .

At first the new consortium intended to produce a long-term and a short range version. However, prospective customers showed no interest in short-range version and it was dropped. Consortium secured orders (ie, no other binding) for more than 100 of the airline’s long-term version of the big day: Pan Am, BOAC and Air France were the launch customer, with each of the six Concorde. Other airlines in the order book included Panair do Brasil , Continental Airlines , Japan Airlines , Lufthansa , American Airlines , United Airlines , Air India , Air Canada , Braniff , Singapore Airlines , Iran Air , Olympic Airways , Qantas , CAAC , Middle East Airlines and TWA . It was originally known in Britain as “Concorde”, the French spelling, but was officially changed to “Concord” by Harold Macmillan in response to slightly felt by Charles de Gaulle. . “In 1967, the French roll-out in Toulouse the British Government Minister for Technology, Tony Benn announced that he would change the spelling back to” Concorde. “This created a nationalist uproar that died down when Benn stated that the suffixed” e “represented” Excellence , UK, Europe and Entente (Cordiale). “In his memoirs, he tells a story about an angry letter from Scotland who stated:” [Y] ou talk about ‘E’ for England, but most are made in Scotland. “Given the contribution of Scotland providing the nose cone for the aircraft, Benn replied, “[I] t is also ‘E’ to ‘Ecosse’ (the French name for Scotland) – and I might have added ‘e’ for extravagance and ‘e’ for escalation as well! “The construction of two prototypes began in February 1965: 001, built by Aerospatiale at Toulouse, and 002 by BAC at Filton, Bristol. Concorde 001 makes first test flight from Toulouse on March 2, 1969, piloted by Andre Turcat, and the first supersonic on October 1. the first British built Concorde flew from Filton to RAF Fairford on 9 April 1969, piloted by Brian Trubshaw. [11] As the flight program in progress, 001 commenced sales and demonstration tour on 4 September 1971.002 Concorde followed on June 2, 1972 by tour of Central and Eastern Jauh.Concorde makes first visit to the United States in 1973, who recently landed at Dallas-Fort Worth Regional Airport to mark the opening of the airport. This trip led to more than 70 orders for the plane, but a combination of factors led to the cancellation command: the 1973 oil crisis, airline financial difficulties, a spectacular Paris Le Bourget air show crash of the competing Soviet Tupolev Tu-144, and the environment such as sonic boom, takeoff noise and pollution In 1976, four countries remain as potential buyers: Britain , France, China, and Iran. In the end, only Air France and British Airways (the successor to BOAC) took their order, with the two governments taking a cut of any profits. In the case of BA, 80% of the profits retained by the government until 1984, while the cost of buying plane is covered by borrowing countries. Two designs have been submitted; the Lockheed L-2000, looks like a scaled-up Concorde, lost to the Boeing 2707, which is meant to be faster, to carry 300 passengers and feature a swing-wing design. Industry observers in France and the United Kingdom showed that part of the Concorde against America on the basis of noise pollution are regulated by, or at least encouraged by, the Government of the United States, out of envy because it can not propose a viable competitor, even though President John F. Kennedy’s passionate commitment statement 1963 . [14] Other countries, like India and Malaysia, ruled out Concorde supersonic overflights due to noise concerns. demonstration and test flights were flown from 1974 onwards. Testing of Concorde set records that have not been exceeded; prototype, pre-production and first production aircraft to 5335 flight hours. A total of 2000 test hours at supersonic speeds. Unit Unit cost of £ 23 million (U.S. $ 46 million) in 1977. cost of building six times the projected amount.

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